Parashari system astrology

These are The Zodiac; Celestial Deification the religious element to astrology ; Polarity The concept of opposite natures of signs and planets ; and Elements the classification of signs and planets. In order to research these areas for each tradition, I have used numerous websites and a total of 22 published books including translations of ancient manuscripts. The original publication dates of these books vary from Ancient Greece up to , so my report is based on an eclectic range of source material.

It has been challenging at times to filter out relevant information from these considering the depth and complexity of the subject, but I have attempted to include the most appropriate evidence for each section without deviating from the title.

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Initially, I had also planned to include a fourth tradition, the astrology of Ancient Babylon, in my project. However, upon researching it, it became apparent that there is little discussion or evidence regarding Polarity and Elements in the astrological system of the Babylonians. Whilst it is necessary to evaluate differences between traditions to successfully answer my question, I felt that Babylonian astrology was simply too detached from the other ideas, and therefore irrelevant. In addition to this, my research on Western astrology entails some of the astrology of Ancient Babylon, so there was still an opportunity to discuss Babylonian astrological thought without designating a section for it for each different subheading.

Despite omitting my separate research on Babylon from the report, I have included it in the attached draft. However, upon investigating potential resources, I found that Western, Vedic and Chinese astrology are generally the most discussed astrological systems, with a copious amount of resources available on the subjects. Also, all three have mutual attributes; for example, they all have a Zodiac of some form; they all have celestial deification, to some degree; they all endorse the concept of polarity; and, finally, they all have a classification of elements.

This means that, despite their differences, they appear to have certain connections, making them effective for comparison. Upon research, however, I have found that its origins are rooted in Ancient Greece and Ancient Babylon. So, while my research in this field has a geographically Western focus, I have inevitably had to include evidence that goes beyond this in order to deeply compare Western astrology with the other traditions.

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Hinduism is a religion that formed in the Indus Valley civilisation in India between - BC 2. This type of astrology exists in both ancient Sanskrit texts from India that underlie Hinduism, as well as more recent publications that reiterate Vedic astrology for a Western audience. Chinese Astrology This field of research involves the astrological and cosmological ideas within Chinese philosophy and religion. This involves popular Chinese astrology such as the twelve Zodiac animal years which are now widely known in the West 3 , as well as early Chinese folk religion and other spirituality systems such as Taoism that have emerged from the geographical location of East Asia.

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Through evidence collected from my research, I have evaluated the differences between the Zodiac signs themselves, their origin, and their application. In my own brief and informal investigation of looking through popular magazines in UK supermarkets, I found that OK! With this considered, Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos can be recognised as a solid record of the Western Zodiac. As mentioned earlier, however, prior to their presence in Ancient Greece the twelve zodiac signs were born in Babylon. Finally, the Western zodiac is characterised by the fact that it is tropical. The Zodiac signs are not determined by the exact positions of these constellations.

From this is can be deduced that, in Western astrology, the Zodiac cycle orientates seasonally, as opposed to coordinating with the positions of the constellations. These two descriptions of the Vedic sign in conjunction with each other provide a solid understanding of the Vedic conception of Aries. Because they are the same zodiac, it can be assumed that they share origins from Ancient Babylon.

The major difference between the Vedic and Western zodiacs is that, while the Western Zodiac is tropical and based on the seasons, Vedic astrology is alternatively sidereal, meaning it does correspond with the constellations. As Frawley explains, the Western Zodiac is tropical. He then explains that, alternatively, the Vedic zodiac is Sidereal.

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This means that while the signs themselves are the same as the West despite the inevitable linguistic difference of the Vedic signs being in Sanskrit , they are in slightly different positions. For instance, somebody who is a Capricorn in Western astrology will be a Sagittarius the previous sign in Vedic astrology. This is because, over time, the constellations are gradually moving out of line with the seasonal cycle of the Tropical Zodiac; according to www.

In conclusion, therefore, Vedic and Western astrology share the same signs of the Zodiac, however there is a significant contrast in which the signs of the Zodiac are positioned. Therefore, the first major difference between astrology systems that can be established is the way in which the Zodiacs are applied in Western and Vedic astrology. Like in the Western and Vedic zodiac, distinctive personality traits are assigned to each sign.

Evidently, the Chinese Zodiac is not dissimilar from its Western and Vedic counterparts in that it consists of twelve distinctive signs, each with different personal qualities. However, the signs themselves contrast significantly as they are based on the legend of the animals, and not the constellations originally registered in Ancient Babylon.

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While the Western and Vedic zodiac originates in Ancient Babylon, some sources claim that the Eastern Zodiac adopted by China was devised prior to this and is in fact the oldest Zodiac to exist. It could be argued, therefore, that a key difference between the Zodiac of the animals and the Zodiac of constellations is that the Zodiac of the animals came significantly earlier.

In regard to the formulation of the animal signs, Wu explains the legend of the twelve zodiacal animals later in the same publication, which provides an insight into their origin. Upon celebration of the Chinese New Year, all of the animals in the kingdom were invited, but only 12 creatures attended. Again, this contrasts significantly with the Zodiac of the Western and Vedic traditions, where the signs are not derived from a fable but are instead based on constellations documented in Ancient Babylon and presented by Ptolemy.


Finally, a distinctive attribute of the Chinese Zodiac is that, unlike the Western and Vedic Zodiac, it is neither tropical nor sidereal. In fact, some sources suggest that the signs of the Zodiac are based on the movement of Jupiter and the Moon. It is difficult to establish exactly the application of the Chinese Zodiac, as Campion implies that this theory is merely a suggestion.

However, it can be confirmed that is not related to stars in neither a tropical or sidereal respect, which can be considered a major contrast between Chinese astrology and Western and Vedic astrology. This concerns the religious and theological aspect of the three astrological practices, which I believe to be relevant in comparing the three systems. Western Astrology As with most aspects of Western astrology, to investigate whether or not celestial deification is present in the tradition, its roots in Ancient Greece can be invoked. Particularly, the works of Ptolemy whose influential role in Western astrology has been established in the previous section contain information regarding the Western attitudes towards and understandings of the planets.

This differs vastly from Vedic astrology, where the planets are presented to possess deific and non-human qualities. This will be elaborated on in more depth in the next subheading. Ultimately, Western astrology according to Ptolemy does not address the planets with qualities as particularly extravagant or deified, as they are in other systems. This could perhaps be interpreted as suggesting a lack of celestial deification in Western astrology.

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Alternatively, however, there are modern resources on the subject of Western astrology suggesting that the planets do indeed correspond with deities. Upon further research it is evident that Reed has based these correspondences on the etymology of the Western planets. As defined on www. This would imply that there is planetary deification in the sense that the planets are comparable to Gods, at least in this publication.

To conclude, it is difficult to establish the presence of deification in Western astrology, simply because different sources imply contrasting ideas. Vedic Astrology There is a strong presence of planetary deification throughout the Vedic tradition of astrology. Vyasa is a central figure in the compilation of ancient Vedic doctrines such as the Rig Veda, that underlie the Hindu religion I worship the Sun, who has the lustre of a red hibiscus, who has the power of perception, of great effulgence, the dispeller of darkness, who destroys all sins, the maker of the day.

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I worship the Moon, who has the colour of yogurt, seashell or snow, who arose from the ocean of milk, whom Shiva wears as a crest jewel on his head. The concept of the zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology, was influenced by Hellenistic culture. According to astrology, celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of " as above, so below ", so that the signs are held to represent characteristic modes of expression. Modern discoveries about the true nature of celestial objects have undermined the theoretical basis for assigning meaning to astrological signs, empirical scientific investigation has shown that predictions and recommendations based on these systems are not accurate.

Beyond the celestial bodies, other astrological points that are dependent on geographical location and time are referenced within this ecliptic coordinate system. Various approaches to measuring and dividing the sky are used by differing systems of astrology, although the tradition of the Zodiac's names and symbols remain consistent. In Western and Indian astrology, the emphasis is on space, the movement of the Sun and planets in the sky through each of the zodiac signs. In Chinese astrology, by contrast, the emphasis is on time, with the zodiac operating on cycles of years and hours of the day.

While Western astrology is a product of Greco-Roman culture, some of its more basic concepts originated in Babylon. Isolated references to celestial "signs" in Sumerian sources are insufficient to speak of a Sumerian zodiac. The division of the ecliptic in twelve equal sectors is a Babylonian conceptual construction. By the 4th century BC, Babylonian astronomy and its system of celestial omens had an influence on the culture of ancient Greece , as did the astrology of ancient Egypt by late 2nd century BC; this resulted, unlike the Mesopotamian tradition, in a strong focus on the birth chart of the individual and in the creation of Horoscopic astrology, employing the use of the Ascendant, of the twelve houses.

Association of the astrological signs with Empedocles ' four classical elements was another important development in the characterization of the twelve signs; the body of astrological knowledge by the 2nd century AD is described in Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos , a work, responsible for astrology's successful spread across Europe and the Middle East , remained a reference for seventeen centuries as traditions made few substantial changes to its core teachings. The following table enumerates the twelve divisions of celestial longitude , with the Latin names and the English translation.


Association of calendar dates with astrological signs only makes sense when referring to Sun sign astrology. Empedocles, a fifth-century BC Greek philosopher, identified Fire, Earth and Water as elements, he explained the nature of the universe as an interaction of two opposing principles called love and strife manipulating the four elements, stated that these four elements were all equal, of the same age, that each rules its own province, each possesses its own individual character. Different mixtures of these elements produced the different natures of things.

Empedocles said that those who were born with near equal proportions of the four elements are more intelligent and have the most exact perceptions. Each sign is associated with one of the classical elements, these can be grouped according to polarity: Fire and Air signs are considered positive or extrovert , masculine signs. The four astrological elements are considered as a direct equivalent to Hippocrates ' personality types.

A modern approach looks at elements as "the energy substance of experience" and the next table tries to summarize their description through keywords. Classification according to element has gained such importance, that some astrologers start their interpretation of a natal chart, by studying the balance of elements shown by the position of planets and angles; each of the four elements manifests in three modalities: Cardinal and Mutable. As each modality comprehends four signs, these are known as Quadruplicities, they are referred to as crosses because ea.

Ketu mythology Ketu is the descending lunar node in Vedic , or Hindu astrology. According to some accounts in Hindu mythology, Ketu belongs to Jaimini Gotra , whereas Rahu is from Paiteenasa gotra and hence both are different entities with distinct characteristics but are two parts of a common body. Ketu is referred to as a "shadow" planet, it is believed to have a tremendous impact on human lives and the whole creation.

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